Deploying docker containers, managing routes, generating TLS certificates, and load balancing can be a hassle sometimes. It may become more difficult to manage all of this if you want to run multiple docker containers on the same host!
Solution? For running multiple services on the same host you can use a reverse proxy. A reverse proxy is a service running on your host machine which maps each public request to its corresponding backend service running on the same host. There are many reverse proxies out there. One of which is Traefik!
Traefik is an open-source router which takes care of reverse proxying requests, load balancing, TLS certificate generation (let's encrypt), etc. It supports HTTP, HTTP/2, TCP, UDP, Websockets, and gRPC protocols. It also has a clean and modern dashboard for monitoring. And adding to all these, it is way easier to use as compared to Nginx!
For more details: https://traefik.io/traefik/
In this post, I will guide you through setting up Traefik 2 and running a simple example Node.js app.
For the sake of this post, I am going to use a VM instance from Oracle Cloud free tier (2 vCPU arm64, 8GB ram, Ubuntu 22.04). You are free to use whatever host you want.
- A Linux server with Docker installed. Having at least 2 GB of RAM will be better for running multiple containers. Though you can run it on an even smaller server.
docker-composeshould also be installed.
- A domain name with a wildcard record pointing towards your server IP
Here is a sample DNS record which you can use to set up for your domain.
This will make
*.example.com available for Traefik. This means you can route your apps and services with names like blog.example.com, forum.example.com, dashboard.example.com, etc.
If you don't want to make a wildcard record for the main domain name but instead for a subdomain then you can change the value under Name to
*.subdomain . This will result in names like xyz.subdomain.example.com, dashboard.subdomain.example.com, etc.
Before going any further we need to update our system.
sudo apt-get update
Now, you can install docker and docker-compose.
sudo apt-get install \ ca-certificates \ curl \ gnupg \ lsb-release && \ sudo mkdir -p /etc/apt/keyrings && \ curl -fsSL https://download.docker.com/linux/ubuntu/gpg | sudo gpg --dearmor -o /etc/apt/keyrings/docker.gpg && \ echo \ "deb [arch=$(dpkg --print-architecture) signed-by=/etc/apt/keyrings/docker.gpg] https://download.docker.com/linux/ubuntu \ $(lsb_release -cs) stable" | sudo tee /etc/apt/sources.list.d/docker.list > /dev/null && \ sudo apt-get update && \ sudo apt-get install docker-ce docker-ce-cli containerd.io docker-compose-plugin docker-compose && \ sudo groupadd docker || sudo usermod -aG docker $USER && \ newgrp docker && \ sudo systemctl enable docker.service && sudo systemctl enable containerd.service
(I have munched up all the commands in one single just to save some time. It even includes some post-installation steps)
Verify your docker installation by running the famous
docker run hello-world
Let's start with Traefik. Create a data folder for storing Traefik configuration file
acme.json for storing certificates and a configurations folder for storing dynamic configurations file
mkdir -p data/configurations && \ touch data/traefik.yml && \ touch data/acme.json && \ touch data/configurations/dynamic.yml && \ chmod 600 data/acme.json
Now create a
docker-compose.yml for Traefik.
and add the following lines to
traefik.yourdomain on line 25 with your dashboard URL.
version: '3.7' services: traefik: image: traefik:v2.7 container_name: traefik restart: always security_opt: - no-new-privileges:true ports: - 80:80 - 443:443 volumes: - /etc/localtime:/etc/localtime:ro - /var/run/docker.sock:/var/run/docker.sock:ro - ./data/traefik.yml:/traefik.yml:ro - ./data/acme.json:/acme.json - ./data/configurations:/configurations networks: - web labels: - "traefik.enable=true" - "traefik.docker.network=web" - "traefik.http.routers.traefik-secure.entrypoints=websecure" - "traefik.http.routers.traefik-secure.rule=Host(`traefik.yourdomain`)" - "[email protected]" - "[email protected]" networks: web: external: true
There's a lot of stuff going on here so let's understand some part of it.
We have passed
no-new-privileges as true to avoid container processes from gaining additional privileges.
We have added
docker.sock file in volumes so that Traefik can listen to all the changes happening to the containers. We have also added our configuration file
acme.json. We also added the path to our dynamic configuration file.
We have also set the network to
Now let's edit Traefik configuration file
and add the following to it
[email protected] on lines 34 and 42 with your personal or website email. It will be used by Let's Encrypt to notify you regarding the expiration of TLS certificates. Nonetheless, you don't have to worry about regenerating certificates as Traefik will do it for you automatically.
api: dashboard: true entryPoints: web: address: :80 http: redirections: entryPoint: to: websecure websecure: address: :443 http: middlewares: - [email protected] - [email protected] tls: certResolver: letsencrypt pilot: dashboard: false providers: docker: endpoint: "unix:///var/run/docker.sock" exposedByDefault: false file: filename: /configurations/dynamic.yml certificatesResolvers: letsencrypt: acme: email: [email protected] storage: acme.json keyType: EC384 httpChallenge: entryPoint: web buypass: acme: email: [email protected] storage: acme.json caServer: https://api.buypass.com/acme/directory keyType: EC256 httpChallenge: entryPoint: web
and add the following to it
http: middlewares: nofloc: headers: customResponseHeaders: Permissions-Policy: "interest-cohort=()" secureHeaders: headers: sslRedirect: true forceSTSHeader: true stsIncludeSubdomains: true stsPreload: true stsSeconds: 31536000 # Generate yours using htpasswd # UserName : admin # Password : fossian user-auth: basicAuth: users: # Generate using "htpasswd -nb admin secure_password" - "admin:$apr1$B5scLRiX$ivpndRS3XuqZ05oaDgHql0" tls: options: default: cipherSuites: - TLS_ECDHE_ECDSA_WITH_AES_256_GCM_SHA384 - TLS_ECDHE_RSA_WITH_AES_256_GCM_SHA384 - TLS_ECDHE_ECDSA_WITH_AES_128_GCM_SHA256 - TLS_ECDHE_RSA_WITH_AES_128_GCM_SHA256 - TLS_ECDHE_ECDSA_WITH_CHACHA20_POLY1305 - TLS_ECDHE_RSA_WITH_CHACHA20_POLY1305 minVersion: VersionTLS12
To change the password install
htpasswd which is a part of
sudo apt-get install apache2-utils
Then run this (make sure you replace secure_password with your password)
htpasswd -nb admin secure_password
This will return you something like this:
You can now replace the old one (line 22) with your newly generated one.
Now all the things are set. Just one more thing to do before running your shiny Traefik container, i.e., Creating the docker network
web which we provided in the
First, check if the network
web is there or not.
docker network ls
If there is a network named
web then you can skip the below command otherwise run it to make one.
docker network create web
When we will run other containers we can add them to this network so that Traefik can proxy them.
Now everything is set.
Run the Traefik container using docker-compose
docker-compose up -d
If everything goes well you can access your Traefik dashboard at
traefik.yourdomain or the URL which you added in place of that.
There you have your own reverse proxy setup and running.
After setting Traefik, adding new docker containers is easy. You just have to define some labels and you are good to go.
Step-4: Hosting a node.js express webapp
We are going to deploy a simple node.js express web app.
First, clone it to your server.
git clone https://github.com/fossian-com/sample-webapp-nodejs
Now, cd into the directory
sample-webapp-nodejs and create a
cd sample-webapp-nodejs && nano docker-compose.yml
and add the following
Make sure you replace
nodeapp.yourdomain at line 21 with the URL you want.
version: '3' services: nodejsapp: # image: image-name:tag build: . container_name: sample-webapp-nodejs environment: PORT: 8080 networks: - web restart: always labels: # Allow Traefik to access the container - "traefik.enable=true" # Tells Traefik to look in web to find the internal IP of the container - "traefik.docker.network=web" # Entrypoints to websecure i.e., port 443 - "traefik.http.routers.ghost-secure.entrypoints=websecure" # Rule for the url for webapp container - "traefik.http.routers.ghost-secure.rule=Host(`nodeapp.yourdomain`)" networks: web: external: true
Now simply run
docker-compose up -d
and after successful deployment access your app at
nodeapp.yourdomain or the URL which you provided.
You can also see on your Traefik dashboard that a new route has been added.
If you plan to run a full-fledge Nodejs app with database support then make sure you add a
db service in docker-compose under the same network with the Nodejs app.
version: '3' services: db: image: mariadb container_name: webapp-db volumes: - db-data:/var/lib/mysql networks: # For accepting communication from the webapp - default restart: always environment: MYSQL_ROOT_PASSWORD: rootpassword MYSQL_DATABASE: db MYSQL_USER: dbuser MYSQL_PASSWORD: dbpassword nodejsapp: depends_on: - db # image: image-name:tag build: . container_name: sample-webapp-nodejs environment: PORT: 8080 DB_HOST: db:3306 DB_NAME: db DB_USER: dbuser DB_PASSWORD: dbpassword networks: # For communicating with the db - default - web restart: always labels: # Allow Traefik to access the container - "traefik.enable=true" # Tells Traefik to look in web to find the internal IP of the container - "traefik.docker.network=web" # Entrypoints to websecure i.e., port 443 - "traefik.http.routers.ghost-secure.entrypoints=websecure" # Rule for the url for webapp container - "traefik.http.routers.ghost-secure.rule=Host(`nodeapp.yourdomain`)" volumes: db-data: # Naming the database volume name: nodejs-webapp-db-data networks: web: external: true
In this tutorial, we installed Traefik, ran a simple web app container and learnt how to reverse proxy it with Traefik using a few lines of code.
You could have done the same with Nginx but it wouldn't be this easy! Traefik handles everything on its own and you don't have to restart it every time you deploy or make any changes to any running container. With just a few lines in
docker-compose.yml, we were able to reverse proxy the web app and even secure it with a TLS certificate.
You can learn more about Traefik here: Traefik Proxy Documentation.